Multiple myeloma: Know about it and tips to diagnose it

There are many people who are said to be affected with multiple myeloma disease and would require immediate treatment. It becomes important for such patients to first do undertake thorough research about this ailment and find out more about it, the kind of treatment that can be availed and how they can prevent its further growth. Being educated about the ailment can help the person to get the best possible treatment.



Some interesting facts about multiple myeloma
  • Plasma cell malignant disorder
  • More males being affected when compared to females
  • It occurs rarely among people under 30 years of age
  • Peak incidences noticed between the ages of 60 & 70 years
Pathogenesis
  • Proliferated cells can infiltrate the tissues
  • One abnormal immunoglobulins (paraprotein) type usually IgA or IgG
  • Paraprotein could cause auto immune manifestations
  • Paraprotein could coat platelets as well as coagulation factors
  • Incomplete immunogloblins product (only light chain) by plas. Cells get exerted in urine
  • Reduced normal immunoglobulin production leading to infections
Clinical picture
1. Skeletal:
  • Pathological fractures and bone aches
  • Multiple osteolytic lesions present in the skill including osteoclast stimulation
  1. Neurological:
  • Plasma cell infiltration of nerves, muscles and roots
  • Spinal cord compression by vertebral lesion
2. Renal Failures because of:
  • Nephrocalcinosis due to hypercalcaemia
  • Bence-Jones proteins with precipitation in kidneys
  • Kidney Amyloidosis
  • Pyelonephritis because of infection susceptibility
  • Hyperuricaemia because of plasma cell destruction
3. Anemia because of:
  • Renal Impairment
  • Haemolysis due to paraprotein
  • BM inhibition by radiotherapy or chemotherapy
  • Bone marrow replacement with plasma cells
4. Bleeding tendency because of:
  • Coagulation coating factor by paraprotein
  • Platelet coating by paraprotein
5. Cardio-Vascular:
  • Hyperviscosity Syndrome
  • Raynoud’s phenomenon because of cold antibodies
6. Others:
  • Amyloidosis
  • Repeated infections
Investigations to be carried out:
Blood picture:
  • Increased ESR
  • Anemia
Bone marrow examination:
  • In includes plasma cells in full
Biochemical:
  • Normal Alkaline Phosphatase is witnessed
  • There is found increased uric acid amount in the blood
  • There is found increased calcium amount in blood
Immuno electrophoresis:
  • Displays marked increased within a single type of immunoglobulin
Renal:
  • Kidney function exam could be impaired
  • Urine electrophoresis to avail light chains and paraprotein
  • Bence- Jones Proteins
X-Ray:
  • The bone region being provided with multiple osteolytic lesions especially in the pelvis, skull and vertebrae region.
Some commonly recommended treatments

The physicians after carrying out various types of diagnosis and tests will specify the type of treatment to be carried out on the patients, which again will be dependent upon what is exactly best for them. Some of the commonly offered treatments are as follows:
  • Symptomatic: For instance pain and renal failure
  • Radiotherapy: Towards controlling tumor masses
  • Chemotherapy: Cyclophosphamide or melphalan
The Multiple Myeloma India professionals can offer the most appropriate treatment solutions that will favor the patient and provide him/her with a decent, healthy life.
Multiple myeloma: Know about it and tips to diagnose it Multiple myeloma: Know about it and tips to diagnose it Reviewed by Sandeep malik on 05:17 Rating: 5

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